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Clearwater Goals, Objectives and Strategies

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Goal: Out of subbasin factors are primary in limiting adult recruitment in the Clearwater subbasin (See Assessment Section 8.3.1).22 objectives, 4 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: 10,000-20,000 long-term returns Pacific Lamprey  
Objective: 1,000 available for harvest Steelhead  
Objective: 4,900 natural spawners Steelhead  
Objective: 5, 900-10,000 long-term returns Steelhead  
Objective: 25,000-74,000 available for harvest Steelhead  
Objective: 5,000 broodstock need for hatchery component Steelhead  
Objective: ~12,000 natural spawners Steelhead  
Objective: 42,000-91,000 long-term returns Steelhead  
Objective: 1,650 broodstock need for hatchery component Coho  
Objective: 14,000 long-term returns Coho  
Objective: Up to 35,000 for harvest Fall Chinook  
Objective: 5,000 broodstock need for the hatchery component Fall Chinook  
Objective: Up to 10,000 natural spawners Fall Chinook  
Objective: 50,000 long-term returns Fall Chinook  
Objective: harvest component of 45,000 Spring Chinook  
Objective: Broodstock need for the hatchery component: 5,000 Spring Chinook  
Objective: A natural spawning component of ~10,000 Spring Chinook  
Objective: 60,000 long-term returns Spring Chinook  
Objective: Increase the number of naturally spawning adults to achieve goals in the following anadromous adult return objectives within 24 years (timeline is consistent with the Council’s Fish and Wildlife Program). This should amount to 4-6% SAR for spring-summer chinook, 3% for fall chinook, and 4% for steelhead as measured at Lower Granite Dam, within next 24 years. All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Participate in province and basin- wide coordinated studies and water management forums designed to examine mainstem and ocean mortality associated with differential migration timing and life histories of anadromous salmonids and lamprey. Conduct research within the context of identifying management versus basin-wide environmental effects. Work with other entities to ameliorate and mitigate limiting factors (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals II-4, VIII-1 and VIII-3).
Strategy: Define and establish anadromous index stocks within the Clearwater subbasin (comparable to existing Snake River index stocks) to evaluate Clearwater specific adult abundance, life history characteristics and spawn-recruit relationships as a measure of productivity. Develop appropriate historic (e.g. run reconstruction) data and long term evaluation protocols for comparison between Clearwater, other Snake River, and comparable downriver stocks (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal IV-2).
Strategy: Improve flows and temperatures to increase out-of-subbasin migration conditions and survival for anadromous salmonids through application of integrated rule curves and modified operational criteria at Dworshak Dam consistent with actions outlined in the Dworshak Operation Plan (IDWR 2000) and monitor and evaluate effects of implementation (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals II-1, II-4, and VIII-3).
Strategy: Progress will be evaluated at least every 2 generations.
Objective: 10,000 Spawning natural adult returns Spring Chinook  
Objective: 10,000 Spawning natural adult returns Fall Chinook  
Objective: B-run = 12,000 spawning natural adult returns, A-run = 4,900 spawning natural adult returns Summer Steelhead  
Goal: Anadromous fish production is limited by habitat quantity, quality and connectivity in portions of the subbasin.1 objective, 7 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Increase anadromous fish productivity and production, and life stage specific survival through habitat improvement. All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Identify and prioritize primary limiting factors in each PMU by anadromous species life stage. Use the general and aquatic issues delineated and prioritized in a spatially explicit manner in Section 4.4 of this volume as the first iteration of this prioritization and expand and improve as possible. Areas should be identified for protection as well as restoration.
Strategy: Evaluate alternative habitat treatments and expected outcomes to address limiting factors in each PMU by species.
Strategy: Establish a set of index streams stratified by PMUs for monitoring. These streams should be representative of the area in which they occur and should not be confused with reference streams. Utilize existing GPM and other data where possible (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal IV-2;
Strategy: Identify and develop indices to evaluate biological response(s) to habitat improvement projects, using appropriate fish production models or empirical data to link the developed index to fish production potential (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals I-3, II-4, IV-2, VII-1, and VIII-3).
Strategy: Implement projects following prioritization developed in Strategy 1 and 2. Coordinate with implementation of strategies and actions delineated under environmental strategies section below.
Strategy: Improve habitat conditions in the lower North Fork Clearwater and lower Clearwater rivers through application of integrated rule curves and modified operational criteria at Dworshak Dam. Use the Dworshak Operation Plan to assist in guiding this effort (IDWR 2000).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate habitat improvement projects. Use indices developed in Strategy 4 to monitor the effectiveness of habitat improvement efforts to provide biological benefits. (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal IV-2). Integrate results and other new information into the process by adapting management to reflect new information.
Goal: Management of hatchery and natural production are not adequately integrated to meet mitigation, restoration, harvest and recovery goals. (See Assessment Sections 8.1 and 8.2 for information about ongoing hatchery practices and existing knowledge of hatchery/wild interactions within and between species).2 objectives, 8 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Utilize a mix of hatchery and natural production strategies for native, localized, and reintroduced populations to meet subbasin goals delineated in Table 3 within 25 years. All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Maximize hatchery effectiveness in the subbasin--continue existing and/or implement innovative hatchery production strategies in appropriate areas to support fisheries, natural production augmentation and rebuilding, reintroduction, and research. See Assessment Sections 8.1 and 8.2 for information about ongoing hatchery practices. See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals V-1, V-2, VI-2, VII-2, VIII-4, VIII-5, and VIII-6 for related RM&E proposals.
Strategy: Apply safety net hatchery intervention based on extinction risk analysis and benefit risk assessments.
Strategy: Implement artificial propagation measures and continue existing natural production strategies.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of implementation of hatchery and natural production strategies.
Strategy: Modify Strategy 1 as necessary based on information provided by Strategy 3 and other new information.
Objective: Develop an integrated management plan to optimize the use of hatchery fish to meet recovery and harvest objectives. All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Increase communication and coordination--organize a subbasin hatchery production committee of fisheries managers to enhance communication and coordination.
Strategy: Continue to develop stock specific knowledge of interactions between hatchery and wild fish (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal V-2).
Strategy: Increase hatchery effectiveness--develop hatchery fish stocking and marking guidelines for all life stages to optimize the use of hatchery fish (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals V-1, V-2, VI-2, VII-2, VIII-4, VIII-5, and VIII-6).
Goal: Long-term persistence and abundance of native resident fish species within the Clearwater subbasin is threatened by genetic introgression, loss of fluvial population components, genetic interchange, population connectivity, and habitat quality and quantity (See Assessment Sections 8.1.5 through 8.1.9 and 8.3).6 objectives, 18 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Increase populations of westslope cutthroat trout and bull trout where they are extirpated or low by 2017. Westslope Cutthroat  
Strategy: Manage impact of harvest on native resident populations. Maintain and adjust harvest regulations to control impacts as needed to improve native resident fish populations.
Strategy: Improve habitat conditions for native resident populations consistent with environmental objectives and strategies outlined in this management plan (see Problem Statement 7 below). Projects should be implemented following the prioritization develop in Objective E, Strategies 1-3.
Strategy: Evaluate the physical and biological response to habitat projects.
Strategy: Provide research, monitoring and evaluation data to effort outlined in Objective E, Strategies 1-3. Revise program as required.
Objective: Reduce the extent of rainbow x cutthroat trout hybridization in the North Fork Clearwater drainage within 10 years. Rainbow Trout  
Objective: Reduce the extent of rainbow x cutthroat trout hybridization in the North Fork Clearwater drainage within 10 years. Cutthroat Trout  
Strategy: Determine extent of hybridization problems--develop a genetics monitoring plan that integrates past genetics work and includes documentation and interpretation of natural or hatchery influenced genetic interaction between rainbow and cutthroat trout (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal V-2).
Strategy: Prioritize protection and restoration opportunities. For this reiteration, use or integrate the prioritization established in Section 4.4 of this volume.
Strategy: Evaluate management options--evaluate the option of stocking only sterile rainbow trout in the upper and lower North Fork Clearwater. Clearwater Subbasin Management Plan 24 November 2003 assessment units (especially Dworshak Reservoir) (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VI-2). Evaluate the management option of using westslope cutthroat trout progeny from local native broodstock for fisheries mitigation and genetic conservation (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VI-1). Evaluate feasibility of selective harvest to reduce the risk of introgression.
Strategy: Protect quality habitat and restore degraded habitat to promote natural distribution of native resident fish (in coordination with environmental objectives following priorities established under Strategy 2 and Objective E, Strategies 1-3.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of activities implemented under Strategies 3 and 4. Integrate data into Strategies 1 and 2 and into Objective E. Revise strategies 3, and 4 if necessary based on new information.
Objective: Increase populations of westslope cutthroat trout and bull trout where they are extirpated or low by 2017. Bull Trout  
Objective: Evaluate needs and opportunities to increase native resident populations of westslope cutthroat and bull trout throughout the subbasin by 2005 All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Refine knowledge of limiting factors and restoration opportunities--conduct subbasin- wide assessment of native resident fish populations to delineate areas of probable impacts and opportunities for restoration or enhancement (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VI-1).
Strategy: Prioritize opportunities for protection and restoration. For this iteration, use the prioritization established in Section 4.4 of this volume.
Strategy: Repeat strategies 1 and 2 every 5 years, incorporating new monitoring, evaluation and research data.
Objective: Reduce and prevent impacts of brook trout on bull trout, including hybridization. In the next 10 years, establish the degree of bull x brook trout hybridization and determine the potential to diminish future brook x bull trout hybridization Bull Trout  
Strategy: Determine specific populations and areas impacted by hybridization problems--continue and expand ongoing distribution surveys of both brook and bull trout, including standardized genetic sampling to Clearwater Subbasin Management Plan 25 November 2003 determine levels of hybridization (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals V-2 and VI-5.
Strategy: Prioritize problems and projects. For this iteration, use or integrate the prioritization established in Section 4.4 of this volume and in Strategy E.
Strategy: Reduce brook trout impacts on bull trout—continue to implement ongoing projects and evaluate the effectiveness of brook trout removal efforts, including harvest regulations/incentives and brook trout removal and suppression projects in mountain lake and tributary areas where both species currently occur (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VI-5).
Strategy: Investigate alternative measures to eliminate or reduce brook trout populations where they compete or potentially compete with bull trout. Evaluate with short and long-term cost effectiveness measures (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VI-5).
Strategy: Prevent spread of exotic species--develop and test methods to prevent the spread of brook trout, thereby reducing the spread of impacts of hybridization on bull trout and other species (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VI-5).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate outcomes of Strategies 3 and 5. Integrate data into next reiteration of Strategies 1, 2 and 4, along with other new data developed for objectives. Integrate data into Objective E. Revise strategies as necessary to reflect new information and repeat strategies for subsequent iterations.
Goal: Dworshak reservoir operations and management impact important resident fisheries within the reservoir including kokanee, smallmouth bass, bull trout, rainbow trout, and westslope cutthroat (See Assessment Section 4.11 for background on the dam, 8.1.9 for discussion of resident fish in the reservoir, 8.3.2 (resident fish section) for discussion of Dworshak Reservoir operations and impacts to resident fisheries, and 8.1.7 for discussion of bull trout).4 objectives, 15 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Maintain kokanee densities in Dworshak Reservoir between 30 and 50 harvestable (age 2-3) fish/hectare, providing a catch rate of at least 0.7 kokanee/hour. Kokanee  
Strategy: Conduct studies to compare impacts of variable annual entrainment and harvest on recruitment rates of kokanee.
Strategy: Minimize annual entrainment rates of kokanee salmon from Dworshak Reservoir to achieve a minimum target of 50% annual age specific survival of kokanee less than 3 years old . Continue and improve current management strategies by utilizing existing knowledge of dam operations and kokanee distribution and behavior in conjunction with current experimental techniques (e.g. strobe lights) to minimize entrainment of kokanee through Dworshak Reservoir (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal VII-3).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate outcomes of management actions. Integrate new data and lessons into strategies for managing kokanee in Dworshak Reservoir. Revise Strategy 2 as necessary.
Objective: Maintain Dworshak Reservoir as bull trout habitat (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposals VII-2). Bull Trout  
Strategy: Implement monitoring and evaluation studies designed to collect information on bull trout distribution, timing, and usage of Dworshak Reservoir.
Strategy: Estimate annual population size of bull trout migrating to and from Dworshak Reservoir, and develop abundance trends over time (See Section 4.3.1 of this volume, proposals VI-1).
Strategy: Collect data to determine which operations are important limiting factors for bull trout in Dworshak Reservoir. If no important limiting factor is identified than cease this effort. If one or more are identified, then continue with the following steps.
Strategy: Identify and prioritize changes in facilities or operations to reduce impacts.
Strategy: Minimize impact of Dworshak operations on bull trout--modify facilities and operations to limit impacts.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate bull trout population responses to changes in facilities and/or operations to determine success at reducing impacts from limiting factors. Repeat Strategies 4-7 revising strategies as necessary based on new information.
Objective: Evaluate the viability of using hatchery outplants to maintain harvestable sterile rainbow trout densities in Dworshak Reservoir Rainbow Trout  
Strategy: Evaluate existing stocking and creel survey records to assess the relative costs and value of maintaining a rainbow trout fishery in Dworshak Reservoir.
Strategy: Consider alternative strategies towards more effective achievement of ACOE resident fish mitigation at Dworshak, including option of stocking progeny of native cutthroat broodstock from the NF Clearwater.
Strategy: Conduct annual creel surveys on Dworshak Reservoir to determine angler use, harvest, catch, and ability to meet goals of resident fishery.
Strategy: Estimate entrainment rates of stocked rainbow trout from Dworshak Reservoir.
Objective: Maintain and improve in-reservoir resident fish habitat and fisheries. All resident focal species  
Strategy: Improve habitat conditions in Dworshak Reservoir through application of integrated rule curves and modified operational criteria at Dworshak Dam consistent with actions outlined in the Dworshak Operation Plan (IDWR 2000).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effects of Strategy 1 on the habitat conditions in Dworshak Reservoir. Modify activities in Strategy 1 as necessary based on new information.
Goal: Limited understanding of the composition, population trends, and habitat requirements of the wildlife and plant (terrestrial) communities of the Clearwater subbasin, limits the ability to effectively manage or conserve these species (See Assessment Chapters 5 and 6 for presentation of available data related to terrestrial communities).2 objectives, 6 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Increase understanding of the composition, population trends, and habitat requirements of the terrestrial communities of the Clearwater All terrestrial focal species  
Strategy: Collect data--develop a subbasin-wide survey program and database for terrestrial focal, ESA listed, neotropical migrant, and culturally important species.
Strategy: Increase documentation--support the efforts of the Idaho Conservation Data Center (CDC) to document the occurrence of rare species and work toward increased reporting of sightings (See Assessment Section 6.0 for an overview of inconsistency in reporting of rare species).
Strategy: Research life history requirements--continue to research the habitat requirements of the terrestrial species of the Clearwater subbasin, focus efforts on focal, ESA listed and culturally important species.
Objective: Evaluate and quantify wildlife losses associated with continued operation and secondary impacts of Dworshak Dam and reservoir    
Strategy: Assess impacts of Dworshak Dam on wildlife--develop a methodology to assess continued operational and secondary losses associated with Dworshak Dam including literature reviews, modeling, and/or data analysis.
Strategy: Assess impacts to wildlife from loss of anadromous stocks-- quantify the ecological process and population impacts associated with the loss of anadromous fish species in the North Fork Clearwater above Dworshak reservoir.
Strategy: Mitigate wildlife impacts related to Dworshak Dam--Develop a program to mitigate for operational and secondary wildlife losses in the Clearwater subbasin.
Goal: Water quantity and quality, connectivity, and habitat complexity are key environmental factors that limit the production of anadromous and resident fish species and aquatic wildlife (See Assessment Sections 8.3.2 through 8.3.6).7 objectives, 37 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Complete adequate flow designations for all anadromous fish bearing waterways by 2010 All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Complete designation of adequate flow requirements where appropriate by 2017. Conduct appropriate consultation amongst local, state, tribal, federal, and other relevant agencies/entities to designate adequate flow requirements by 2010 (Assessment Section 4.8.1 provides an overview of existing minimum flow requirements).
Strategy: Determine need--Research adequate flows for specific life history and species composition. Identify problems and opportunities for improvement.
Strategy: Prioritize problems and activities for protection and restoration. Integrate information from Section 4.4. of this volume into the assessment.
Strategy: Restore adequate flows--where hydrographs have been altered (See Assessment Hydrology Sections 4.7.2 and 4.7.3), continue and expand efforts aimed at increasing base flows and restoring natural flow timing through riparian, floodplain and wetland enhancement, definition and establishment of adequate flow levels, and implementation of forest and agricultural BMPs.
Strategy: Cooperate with user groups--where hydrographs have been altered by high surface water withdrawls (See Assessment Section 4.8.1), work with user groups to decrease water withdrawls.
Strategy: Secure water rights--coordinate efforts with the Idaho Department of Water Resources to secure water rights designated to meet flows where necessary by 2017.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate outcomes of Strategies 4, 5 and 6. Integrate new data with information from Strategy 7. Revise strategies 1-3 as necessary to reflect new information. Continue or repeat strategies 4-8 until all flows are adequate.
Objective: Reduce number of artificially blocked streams by 2017 All aquatic focal species  
Strategy: Identify need--compile and evaluate a comprehensive database of existing and potential barriers to fish migration in the Clearwater subbasin by 2010.
Strategy: Prioritize barriers for removal or modification
Strategy: Remove or modify human-caused barriers--emphasize alteration/removal of unnatural barriers over natural barriers.
Strategy: Avoid introgression--where elimination of barriers may pose a high risk to the genetic make- up of upstream fish stocks, de-emphasize barrier removal or elimination until the risk of introgression is minimized or eliminated.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate biological response resulting from Strategy 3 and 4. Integrate new data into Strategy 1 and 2. Modify strategies based on new information and repeat until artificial barriers have been removed.
Objective: Reduce water temperatures to levels meeting applicable water quality standards for life stage specific needs of anadromous and native resident fish, with an established upward trend in the number of stream miles meeting standards by 2017 All aquatic focal species  
Strategy: Identify and prioritize need-- inventory and prioritize areas where temperature amelioration would most benefit various target species (See Assessment Sections 4.9.1, 4.9.2, and 8.3.6). Conduct habitat inventories throughout the Lower Clearwater assessment unit, placing emphasis on canopy closure/stream shading data collection (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal IX-1). Develop comprehensive water temperature database. Start with the prioritization established in Section 4.4 of this volume and in Strategy E. Prioritize problems, opportunities and areas. This prioritization will determine sequencing of activities in Strategies 2-4.
Strategy: Restore hydrologic functions related to temperature--identify and rehabilitate wetland and floodplain areas (See Assessment Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.5.13 and 5.9.3 for existing information on wetlands and limiting factors; See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal X-1 and X-3).
Strategy: Restore riparian functions related to temperature--continue efforts aimed at increasing streamside shading where streamside shading has been reduced by anthropogenic activities, This includes implementing forest and agricultural BMPs (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal X-4). Restore watershed functions impacting temperatures.
Strategy: Improve regulatory efforts--continue efforts to examine the need and/or feasibility of developing localized temperature standards applicable within the Clearwater subbasin (See Assessment Section 8.3.6; See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal II-3).
Strategy: Identify additional problems--continue TMDLs, EAWSs, and other watershed scale assessments to define localized factors negatively influencing temperature regimes (See Appendix E for TMDL schedule; Refer to Subbasin Inventory for overview of relevant existing documents).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the results of all implementation strategies. Integrate data with other new information and revise assessment and priority strategies. Repeat implementation and monitoring and evaluation strategies until water temperature is no longer a problem in the subbasin.
Objective: Develop an increased understanding of the thermal impacts of Dworshak Dam operations on life history characteristics of fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and associated wildlife species in downstream reaches, and reduce negative impacts by 2010. All species  
Strategy: Conduct thorough, up-to-date review of relevant literature and data from pre- and post Dworshak Dam periods to ascertain impacts to various species. Relate changes in temperatures due to dam operations to life history characteristics of benthos, fish, and associated wildlife species.
Strategy: Integrate this research with research, monitoring and evaluation activities and implementation strategies in Objective L and Objective B, Strategy 8.
Objective: Reduce instream sedimentation to levels meeting applicable water quality standards and measures, with an established upward trend in the number of stream miles meeting such criterion by 2017. All aquatic focal species  
Strategy: Identify problems and opportunities--continue development of TMDLs, EAWSs, and other watershed scale assessments designed to define localized sediment sources and opportunities to ameliorate impacts (See Appendix E for TMDL schedule; Refer to Subbasin Inventory for overview of relevant existing documents).
Strategy: Research ecosystem function--develop a coordinated sediment production, transport, and fate monitoring program within the subbasin (See Section 3.4.1 of this volume, proposal IV-1).
Strategy: Prioritize areas--inventory and prioritize areas where sediment reductions would be most beneficial to various target species (See Assessment Sections 4.6, 4.9, 7.1, 8.3.1 through 8.3.4, and Chapter 9). For this reiteration of subbasin planning, use or start with the prioritization in Section 4.4 of this volume.
Strategy: Reduce sediment--reduce sediment inputs by implementing practices that address problems from logging, mining, agriculture and other historic and current sediment producing activities.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate results of all implementation activities. Integrate new data and information into Strategies 1-3. Revise and repeat implementation strategies until problem is adequately addressed.
Objective: By 2010, develop a nutrient allocation plan for the subbasin which investigates the potential benefits to fish and wildlife of nutrient additions or reductions All species  
Strategy: Inventory and map all potential anthropogenic nutrient inputs including wastewater treatment facilities, industrial sources, feedlots, and non-point sources. Define nutrient poor or rich stream reaches throughout the subbasin.
Strategy: Coordinate with and utilize TMDLs and other efforts to evaluate nutrient loads and allocations.
Strategy: Prioritize nutrient sources and problems for treatment. Integrate information in Section 4.4 into prioritization process.
Strategy: Target nutrient additions or reduction efforts accordingly to benefit aquatic and terrestrial species.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate nutrient efforts. Integrate data and new information into effort. Refine strategies as needed.
Objective: Improve aquatic habitat diversity and complexity to levels consistent with other objectives outlined in this document, with particular emphasis on recovery of anadromous and fluvial stocks All anadromous focal species  
Strategy: Identify the need—identify habitats that have been simplified to a degree detrimental to anadromous and resident populations.
Strategy: Follow existing plans--continue aquatic habitat improvement efforts consistent with existing federal, tribal, state, and local habitat improvement plans and guidelines (Refer to Subbasin Inventory for overview of relevant existing plans and guidelines).
Strategy: Prioritize actions--Prioritize problems and protection and restoration using the information generated by Strategies 1, 2 and 4 and using Section 4.4 of this volume as a starting point.
Strategy: Restore complexity--address priority problems with protection and restoration activities designed to promote development of more complex and diverse habitats through improved watershed condition and function. This will involve coordination of activities aimed at individual components (e.g. temperature and sediment).
Strategy: Restore ecosystem functions--identify and rehabilitate upland, wetland and floodplain areas (See Assessment Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.5.13 and 5.9.3 for existing information on wetlands and limiting factors; See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal X-1 and X-3).
Strategy: Develop a method to monitor biological response to habitat improvement (consistent with Problem 2, Objective B, Strategies 2-4).
Strategy: Monitor long-term effectiveness of habitat improvement efforts (as described for proposals throughout Section 3.4 of this volume). Modify strategies based on new information as necessary.
Goal: The extensive loss and degradation of the prairie grassland habitats of the Lower Clearwater have negatively impacted numerous native plant and animal species dependent on these habitats.2 objectives, 9 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Protect remaining native prairie remnants.    
Strategy: Collect and map data--inventory and map existing prairie grassland remnants, building on the work of Weddell and Lichthardt (1998). (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal IX-1).
Strategy: Prioritize opportunities--give priority to larger remnants or those that contain rare species. Integrate information presented in Section 4.4 of this volume and the inventory of Strategy 1.
Strategy: Protect remnants--protect remaining native prairie grassland remnants through land acquisition, fee title acquisitions, conservation easements, or land exchanges.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of protecting prairie remnants as a strategy for providing prairie grassland habitats and protecting prairie grassland dependent wildlife species. Integrate new information into Strategies 1 and 2 as part of next iteration of program.
Objective: Restore 2000 acres of historic native prairie grassland habitat to natural conditions by 2017.   Grasslands
Strategy: Research prairie restoration methods--explore techniques for effectively restoring prairie habitats in coordination with the Palouse Clearwater Subbasin Management Plan 39 November 2003 Prairie Foundation and other interested landowners, agencies and organizations.
Strategy: Identify and prioritize areas for prairie restoration. Integrate information from Objective V, Strategy 2 into process.
Strategy: Restore prairie habitats--actively improve or create native prairie habitats through noxious weed control, cultural practices and seeding. Encourage the use of native species in existing state, federal, and tribal habitat programs.
Strategy: Acquire and restore grasslands--continue existing programs such as the Nez Perce Tribe Dworshak Wildlife Mitigation Program that work to acquire and restore prairie and canyon grasslands. Develop new programs to acquire and restore prairie and canyon grasslands.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of Strategies 3 and 4. Integrate new information into Strategies 1 and 2. Modify Strategies as necessary based on new information.
Goal: Reductions in the extent of mature ponderosa pine habitats in the subbasin have negatively impacted the numerous wildlife species that utilize these habitats.2 objectives, 10 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Protect mature ponderosa pine habitats.   Ponderosa Pine
Strategy: Collect and map data--inventory and map existing mature ponderosa pine habitats (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal IX-1).
Strategy: Prioritize ponderosa pine communities for protection--give priority to larger remnants and those with highest potential to be lost. Integrate information presented in Section 4.4 of this volume into prioritization process.
Strategy: Protect ponderosa pine communities--protect existing mature ponderosa pine communities through land purchase, fee title acquisitions, conservation easements, land exchanges or other strategies. Encourage the planting of ponderosa pine in existing state, federal and tribal reforestation efforts.
Strategy: Protect ponderosa pine communities--where appropriate to the habitat type, use prescribed burning and/or understory removal to protect mature stands from stand-replacing fire events (See Assessment Section 5.5.8).
Strategy: Continue effective efforts--continue existing programs such as the Nez Perce Tribe Dworshak Wildlife Mitigation Program that work to acquire and restore low elevation ponderosa pine forests. Develop new programs to acquire and restore mature ponderosa pine forests.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of protection activities to reduce negative impacts to wildlife species. Integrate new information into Strategies 1 and 2. Modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Objective: Encourage the development of 150,000 acres of additional ponderosa pine communities.   Ponderosa Pine
Strategy: Identify and prioritize areas to develop into ponderosa pine communities. Integrate information developed in Objective X Strategies 1, 2 and 6 and information in Section 4.4 of this volume.
Strategy: Manage successional stages--where appropriate to the habitat type, use prescribed burning and selective thinning to encourage succession and the establishment of mature ponderosa pine communities (See Assessment Section 5.2, 5.3, and 5.5.8).
Strategy: Restore ponderosa pine communities--where historic ponderosa pine communities have been deforested, actively replant (See Assessment Section 5.2).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of Strategies 2 and 3 at addressing Objective Y. Integrate new information to modify strategies 1-3 as necessary.
Goal: The loss of wetland and riparian habitats particularly in the Lower Clearwater AU, Lolo-Middle Fork, and South Fork AU has negatively impacted the numerous wildlife species that utilize these habitats.3 objectives, 15 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Protect all currently functioning wetlands   wetlands
Strategy: Prioritize restoration activities--finalize National Wetlands Inventory maps across the subbasin, develop restoration priorities and assess wetland functionality (rely upon work completed by the USFWS and cooperators).
Strategy: Protect wetland habitats--protect wetland habitats through land acquisition, fee title acquisitions, conservation easements, land exchanges, public education, promotion of BMPs, promotion of alternative grazing strategies and the installation of alternative forms of water for livestock.
Strategy: Continue effective activities--continue existing programs such as the Nez Perce Tribe Dworshak Wildlife Mitigation Program that work to acquire and restore wet meadow and wetland habitats. Develop new programs to acquire and restore wet meadow and wetland habitat.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate effort to protect wetlands. Integrate information into Strategy 1 and modifying activities under Strategy 2 and 3 as necessary based on new information.
Objective: Restore 500 acres of historic wetlands to proper functioning condition by 2017   wetlands
Strategy: Identify areas for restoration--use hydric soils maps to determine the location of historic wetlands; particularly in the area of Craigmont, Gifford and Ruebens where herbaceous wetlands were most common historically (See Assessment Sections 4.5, 5.2, 5.5.13, and 5.9 for related information).
Strategy: Prioritize areas for restoration using information developed in Strategy 1 and information in Section 4.4 of this plan.
Strategy: Restore historic wetlands--restore identified historic wetland areas, with a minimum target size of 5 acres (See Assessment Sections 5.2 and 5.5.13; See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposals IX-1 and X-1).
Strategy: Restore existing wetlands--Improve wetland function and quality by controlling invasive species such as reed canary grass, purple loosestrife, water milfoil, and bullfrogs.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate wetland restoration. Integrate new information into Strategies 1 and 2. Modify Strategies 3 and 4 as necessary based on new information and priorities.
Objective: Protect and restore an additional 300 miles of riparian habitats by 2017   Riparian Habitats
Strategy: Identify and prioritize riparian habitats for protection and restoration. Use Section 4.4 of this volume to guide and spatially prioritize protection and restoration of riparian and wetland habitats and communities. Give highest priority to riparian habitats supporting Clearwater Subbasin Management Plan 43 November 2003 spawning and rearing for anadromous and native resident salmonids. Give priority to habitats identified as water quality limited during the TMDL process. (Refer to Subbasin Inventory for overview of TMDL documents completed to date; See Appendix E of this Plan for future TMDL development schedule).
Strategy: Protect and restore riparian habitats-- Protect riparian communities through land purchase, fee title acquisitions, conservation easements, land exchanges, promotion of BMPs and land stewardship, promotion of alternative grazing strategies and the installation of alternative forms of water for livestock.
Strategy: Protect and restore riparian habitats—protect and restore riparian communities in agricultural lands through increased enrollment by landowners in the Continuous Conservation Reserve Program (CCRP; described in Subbasin Inventory Section 2.1).
Strategy: Increase stewardship and public knowledge--increase understanding of the importance of riparian habitat through education programs for both the general public and road maintenance personnel.
Strategy: Continue and develop effective programs--continue existing programs such as the Nez Perce Tribe Dworshak Wildlife Mitigation Program that work to acquire and restore riparian habitats. Develop new programs that work to acquire and restore riparian habitats.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to protect and restore riparian habitats to address Objective BB. Integrate new information into Strategy 1 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Goal: The introduction of noxious weeds and nonnative plant species into the Clearwater subbasin has negatively impacted native terrestrial focal species.2 objectives, 11 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Protect the existing quality, quantity and diversity of native plant communities providing habitat to native wildlife species by preventing the introduction, reproduction, and spread of noxious weeds and invasive exotic plants into and within the subbasin    
Strategy: Identify and prioritize native plant communities for protection from exotic weeds. Integrate information from Section 4.4 of this plan. Prioritize by cost-effectiveness and expected biological response.
Strategy: Prevent reproduction-- minimize ground disturbing activities in habitats highly susceptible to weed invasion.
Strategy: Prevent seed dispersal--encourage the use of weed free seeds and feeds.
Strategy: Prevent seed dispersal--develop and implement programs and policies designed to limit the transportation of weed seeds from vehicles and livestock
Strategy: Increase public participation--develop education and awareness programs in noxious weed identification, spread prevention and treatment.
Strategy: Prevent establishment--minimize establishment of new invaders by supporting early detection and eradication programs.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effort to protect native plant communities from exotic plants. Integrate new information into Strategy 1 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Objective: Reduce the extent and density of established noxious weeds    
Strategy: Prioritize for treatment-- Identify and prioritize noxious weed infestations for treatment. Prioritize according to cost-effectiveness and expected biological response. Integrate information from the Clearwater River Basin Weed Management Area Coordinating Committee weed inventory and management efforts, Objective CC Strategies 1 and 7 and Section 4.4 into prioritization process.
Strategy: Treat weed infestations--implement the most economical and effective treatment methods for reducing weed densities or eliminating weed populations. Use the area and species specific Weed Management Objectives and Priorities developed by the Clearwater River Basin Weed Management Area Coordinating Committee.
Strategy: Encourage best practices--where appropriate, encourage the use of biological control agents as a long-term control strategy without the potentially negative financial and environmental impacts of widespread herbicide use.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to reduce weeds. Integrate new information into Strategy 1 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Goal: Historic and current livestock grazing adversely impacted fish and wildlife habitats and populations in some portions of the subbasin (See Assessment Sections 4.10.7, 6.7.1 and Chapter 9).2 objectives, 9 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Reduce the negative impacts of livestock grazing on the fish, wildlife and plant populations in the subbasin. Focus efforts on riparian and wet meadow habitats   Riparian Habitats
Strategy: Identify and prioritize areas impacted by grazing for protection and restoration. Use Section 4.4 as a spatial prioritization structure until a more refined prioritization process can be carried out.
Strategy: Reduce grazing impacts--encourage establishment of riparian pasture systems, exclusion fences off-site watering areas, or riparian conservation easements. Adjust seasonal timing of livestock grazing to minimize soil compaction, erosion and noxious weed propagation.
Strategy: Reduce confined animal feeding operations impacts--identify concentrated winter feeding operations negatively impacting water quality, and design management actions to minimize sediment and nutrient inputs to streams.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effort to protect and restore habitats from grazing impacts. Integrate new information into Strategy 1 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Objective: Reduce conflicts between livestock and native wildlife and plant populations    
Strategy: Reduce domestic animal/bighorn sheep conflicts--Encourage the reduction or elimination of domestic sheep and goat grazing within bighorn sheep habitat (See Assessment Section 6.5.1).
Strategy: Protect important plant populations--develop grazing management plans to limit adverse impacts to rare or culturally important plant populations (See Assessment Sections 5.7 and 5.8).
Strategy: Prevent seed dispersal--minimize the potential for livestock to facilitate the spread of noxious weeds through weed- free hay programs, quarantine requirements, and other actions
Strategy: Reduce cattle/elk conflicts--where possible, alter grazing management to minimize cattle/elk conflicts, especially on elk winter range areas (See Assessment Section 6.6.1).
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to reduce impacts of cattle on plant and wildlife species. Modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Goal: The expansion of urban and rural human development, particularly in the Lower Clearwater AU, has negatively impacted native terrestrial species.1 objective, 5 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Protect species--minimize the negative impact of current and future development on the native terrestrial species of the subbasin All terrestrial focal species  
Strategy: Identify, map, and prioritize for protection critical habitats and travel corridors.
Strategy: Work with city and county governments to include consideration of these critical habitats in the planning process. Provide factual information on the impacts of development on wildlife species and habitats.
Strategy: Encourage compliance with ordinances and covenants addressing weed and pet control.
Strategy: Protect existing critical habitats under threat of development through land purchase, fee title acquisitions, conservation easements, land exchanges and other actions.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the effort to protect wildlife and their habitats from the effects of development. Integrate new information into Strategy 1 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Goal: The loss of late seral forest habitats in the Clearwater subbasin have negatively impacted native terrestrial species that depend on this habitat type.1 objective, 8 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Protect existing old growth areas and encourage old growth establishment in areas where old growth is below the historic range of variability. Restore natural patch size distribution and juxtapositions. Strategy: Map and inventory existing old growth and potential old growth areas    
Strategy: Determine historic range of variability of old growth communities based on habitat type (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposals X-1 and X-2).
Strategy: Prioritize areas for protection and restoration-- use information obtained through Strategy 1 and Section 4.4 to prioritize areas where old growth habitats are most below the historic range of variability.
Strategy: Restore old growth-- use understory thinning and prescribed burning to encourage the establishment of old growth habitat in areas where old growth is below the historic range of variability and where the historic fire regime consisted of frequent and repeated underburns. Address vegetative structure concerns identified in Strategy 2.
Strategy: Protect existing old growth habitat-- through land purchase, fee title acquisitions, conservation easements, land exchanges or other strategies.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to protect and restore old growth habitats. Revise strategies as necessary based on new information.
Strategy: Mimic natural disturbance process--work with land management agencies to develop managed natural ignition fire policies where politically and ecologically appropriate.
Strategy: Create structural diversity--Break up broad expanses of midseral vegetation and aging lodgepole pine by creating a mosaic of openings with patch sizes typical for the habitat type.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to restore early seral habitats on associated wildlife species. Integrate new information into Strategy 3 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Goal: The reduction in availability of early seral habitats has negatively impacted native terrestrial species.1 objective, 8 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Increase extent and distribution of early seral habitats in the subbasin to within the historic range of variability for the habitat type. Restore natural patch size distribution and juxtapositions   Seral Forest
Strategy: Mimic natural disturbance process--work with land management agencies to develop managed natural ignition fire policies where politically and ecologically appropriate.
Strategy: Create structural diversity--Break up broad expanses of midseral vegetation and aging lodgepole pine by creating a mosaic of openings with patch sizes typical for the habitat type.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to restore early seral habitats on associated wildlife species. Integrate new information into Strategy 3 and modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Strategy: In coordination with efforts focused on addressing Problem 14 map and inventory existing early seral habitat areas (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposal IX-1).
Strategy: Determine historic range of variability of early seral communities based on habitat type (See Section 3.4.2 of this volume, proposals X-1 and X-2).
Strategy: Using information obtained through Strategies 1 and 2, Section 4.4, and the distributions of associated wildlife species, identify and prioritize areas where early seral habitats are most below the historic range of variability.
Strategy: Restore disturbance processes--where appropriate to the habitat type and natural disturbance regime, use prescribed burning and selective harvest to restore disturbance and return areas identified in Strategy 3 back to the historic range of variability.
Strategy: Restore community species composition--put early seral vegetation species, particularly western white pine and western larch, back into the ecosystem while reducing the dominance of grand fir and Douglas- fir.
Goal: Road construction, timber harvest and/or fire suppression have altered the size, quality, distribution and juxtapositions in and between habitat patches in the subbasin.1 objective, 4 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Reduce the impact of the transportation system on wildlife and fish populations and habitats All species  
Strategy: Plan restoration--conduct a transportation system analysis on the roads system of the Clearwater subbasin. Recommend for decommissioning roads not critical for transportation, recreation and land management activities which most negatively impacting terrestrial and/or aquatic habitats.
Strategy: Reduce road impacts--implement road closure and decommissioning programs in areas identified in the assessment and Section 4.4 to have high road densities, high sediment production, high surface erosion and/or be landslide prone. Prioritize areas with high quality wildlife and fish habitat.
Strategy: Protect habitats--encourage continued protection of diverse communities and high quality habitats in existing roadless areas.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to reduce the impact of roads on the fish and wildlife populations of the subbasin. Modify implementation strategies as necessary.
Goal: The loss or dramatic reduction in anadromous fish runs throughout the subbasin has reduced nutrient inputs and reduced habitat suitability for salmon-dependent wildlife.1 objective, 6 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Restore natural nutrient input cycles and mitigate for damages to aquatic and terrestrial populations due to the loss of these nutrients All species  
Strategy: Determine need and practices--assess nutrient inputs and cycling in the Clearwater subbasin. Where appropriate, consider carcass additions or other innovative approaches to restore nutrient recycling. Coordinate with efforts under Objective T to, when possible, benefit both aquatic and terrestrial species.
Strategy: Research restoration practices--Investigate innovative methods to restore nutrient loading to upland areas similar to those currently used to restore nutrient loads to streams (compensatory loads to offset salmon loss).
Strategy: Research losses--evaluate the extent of secondary losses to wildlife populations caused by the construction and continued operation of the hydropower system. Quantify these losses within five years of the adoption of the Clearwater Subbasin Plan.
Strategy: Prioritize areas for restoration of nutrient loads integrating information from Strategies 1-3 and from Section 4.4. of this plan.
Strategy: Implement projects to restore nutrients to upland areas following prioritization develop in Strategy 1.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate efforts to restore nutrients to upland areas. Integrate new information into effort and revise strategies as needed.
Goal: As reflected in the inventory, numerous agencies and entities are implementing programs and projects in the subbasin. Lack of coordination and integration limit the economic, social, cultural and biological benefits of aquatic and terrestrial protection and restoration in the subbasin.1 objective, 3 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Develop programs and project proposals compatible with existing community needs and that integrate with local watershed protection, restoration and management objectives and activities. All species  
Strategy: Involve communities and finer scale efforts in subbasin planning, and in program and project planning.
Strategy: Coordinate plan implementation with federal, tribal, state, local, and other interests, and avoid program and project duplication.
Strategy: Seek formal local support for programs and project proposals.
Goal: There is a great need for prioritization of activities addressing limiting factors. The limited resources available need to be used as efficiently as possible. The great diversity of issues and factors that need to be considered make prioritization a large task that will need to be frequently repeated and fine-tuned based on new information. Key data gaps currently limit the effectiveness of assessment, prioritization and planning in the Clearwater subbasin. Data needs also need to be prioritized and addressed.2 objectives, 7 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Identify high priority habitat areas requiring protection or restoration All species  
Strategy: Develop a prioritization process to achieve multiple objectives, values, and benefits. This will include cost-efficiency, multiple species and benefits, ESA, economic and social impacts, and expected biological benefits; it will prioritize habitat areas for restoration and protection. The spatial prioritization in Section 4.4 of this Plan is a beginning point for this effort. This needs to be done within one year of the adoption of the plan.
Strategy: Integrate prioritization processes to increase the comprehensiveness of criteria considered, and to increase the strategic Clearwater Subbasin Management Plan 53 November 2003 effectiveness of programs and projects implemented in the subbasin. See Table 4 for list of proposed prioritization activities.
Strategy: The Policy Advisory Committee will involve federal, tribal, state, and local policy makers in the prioritization process to integrate available knowledge and needs.
Objective: Prioritize and coordinate efforts to address data gaps All species  
Strategy: The Policy Advisory Committee will involve federal, tribal, state, and local policy makers in the prioritization process to integrate available knowledge and needs.
Strategy: Develop a process to prioritize efforts to fill data gaps. This process should coordinate with efforts in Objective RR to consider similar factors when possible. This needs to be done within one year of the adoption of the plan.
Strategy: Prioritize data gaps to use limited data collection resources most efficiently.
Strategy: Integrate efforts to collect data through monitoring and evaluation efforts and other data collection efforts in the plan. Data collection efforts are listed in Table 5. Additional activities are addressed in the Research, Monitoring and Evaluation section.
Goal: Economic and social factors play an important role in determining the effective and efficient implementation of habitat-related improvement or protection strategies. When they are not considered as part of protection and restoration activities, they can undermine success and reduce activity effectiveness.1 objective, 5 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Evaluate the economic efficiency and impacts of projects as part of prioritization processes in the subbasin All species  
Strategy: Develop simple and useful tools to evaluate the economic efficiency and the social and economic impacts of projects.
Strategy: Develop indices of social and economic conditions and provide a baseline for determining social and economic benefits and impacts.
Strategy: Evaluate the specific economic and social factors affecting resource decision making.
Strategy: Integrate outcomes of Strategies 1-3 into Objective RR
Strategy: Collect data on projects and programs and feed into Strategies 1-3.
Goal: In the past, projects have not been successful in conditions where the local groups are not supportive. Long-term program implementation is more successful where projects are locally developed and implemented.3 objectives, 10 strategies
SpeciesHabitat type
Objective: Participate in existing, and contribute to the further development of, local watershed and technical advisory groups. All species  
Strategy: Assist Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Watershed Advisory Groups, and other existing groups to organize project goals and implementation strategies.
Strategy: Assist interested groups with organizing local watershed programs.
Strategy: Facilitate networking of these groups with technical assistance in the subbasin.
Objective: Maximize social and economic benefits as much as possible while implementing the Clearwater Subbasin Plan All species  
Strategy: Maximize economic benefits of plan--for land purchases or easements, efforts should be made to minimize loss of local government revenues.
Strategy: Efforts should be made to utilize local labor forces, contractors, and suppliers when implementing habitat improvement projects.
Strategy: Monitor and evaluate the efforts to assist local areas and to maximize economic benefits. Modify Strategies as necessary.
Objective: Increase resource information and education delivery in the subbasin. All species  
Strategy: Promote a ridgetop-to-ridgetop stewardship of natural resources through enhanced local involvement and support.
Strategy: Implement information and education actions identified in this management plan.
Strategy: Provide information and assistance to Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Watershed Advisory Groups, watershed groups, and other interested parties for information and education programs.
Strategy: Provide opportunities for subbasin- wide information distribution, such as periodic public meetings, newsletters, web sites, etc.