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Allard, D.C., Jr. 1978. Spencer Fullerton Baird and the U.S. Fish Commission. New York: Arno Press.

Allen, John Elliot. 1979. The Magnificent Gateway. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.

------. and Burns, Marjorie, with Sam C. Sargent. 1986. Cataclysms on the Columbia: A Layman’s Guide to the Features Produced by the Catastrophic Bretz Floods in the Pacific Northwest. Portland, Oregon: .Timber Press.

Allen, John Logan. 1975 Passage Through the Garden:  Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Alt, D., and D.W. Hyndman. 1995. Northwest Exposures:  A Geologic Story of the Northwest. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company.

------ and Donald W. Hyndman. 1984. Roadside Geology of Washington. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Co.

------. Roadside Geology of Oregon. 1978. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Co.

------. Roadside Geology of Idaho. 1989. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Co.

Ambrose, Stephen E. 2000. Nothing Like it in the World, The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869. New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster.

------. 1996. Undaunted Courage:  Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the American West. New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster.

American Fisheries Society. 1977. Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead. Bethesda, Maryland.

Anderson, Bern. 1960. Surveyor of the Sea:  The Life and Voyages of Captain George Vancouver. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Avery, Mary. 1965. Washington: A History of the Evergreen State. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Baillie-Grohman, William A. 1907. Fifteen years sport and life in the hunting grounds of North America and British Columbia.2nd ed. London: Horace-Cox.

Bakeless, John, ed. 1964. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. New York: Mentor, New American Library.

Bancroft, H.H. 1890. History of the Northwest Coast 1543-1800. Two vols. San Francisco: History Company.

------. History of Oregon. 1886. Two vols. San Francisco: History Company.

------. History of Washington, Idaho and Montana. 1890. San Francisco: History Company.

Barman, Jean. 1971. The West Beyond the West:  A History of British Columbia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Barto, Harold E., and Catherine Bullard. 1947. History of the State of Washington. Boston: Heath & Company.

Basque, Garnet. 1990. West Kootenay: The Pioneer Years. Langley, B.C.: Sunfire Publications.

Baun, Carolyn M., and Richard Lewis. 1991. The First Oregonians: An Illustrated Collection of Essays on Traditional Lifeways, Federal-Indian Relations and the State’s Native People Today. Portland: Oregon Council for the Humanities.

Beavert, Virginia. 1974. The Way it Was: Anaku Iwacha — Yakima Indian Legends. Yakima, Washington: Franklin.

Beckham, Stephen Dow. 1977. The Indians of Western Oregon:  This Land Was Theirs. Portland, Oregon: Glass-Dahlstrom.

Berton, Pierre. 1972. The Impossible Railway: The Building of the Canadian Pacific. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Biddle, Nicholas (ed.). 1962. The Journals of the Expedition Under the Command of Capts. Lewis and Clark to the Sources of the Missouri, thence Across the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean, Performed during the Years 1804-5-6. By Order of the Government of the United States. Two volumes. New York.

Blumm, Michael C. 2002 Sacrificing the Salmon:  A Legal and Policy History of the Decline of Columbia Basin Salmon. BookWorld Publications.

Bolton, Herbert Eugene. 1974. Coronado: Knight of Pueblos and Plains. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Buerge, David, and David Brewster, eds. 1989. Washingtonians, A Biographical Portrait of the State. Seattle: Sasquatch Press.

Bullard, Oral. 1968. Crisis on the Columbia. Portland: Touchstone Press.

Bunting, R. 1997. The Pacific Raincoast: Environment, and Culture in an American Eden 1778-1900. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Canby, William C. 1981. American Indian Law In a Nutshell. St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company.

Carey, C. H. 1971. A General History of Oregon. Portland: Binfords and Mort.

Case, Robert. 1940. River of the West; a story of opportunity in the Columbia empire, by Robert Ormond Case; research by William Price Gray. Portland: Northwestern Electric Company; Pacific Power & Light Company.

Catlin, George. 1959. Episodes from Life Among the Indians, and Last Rambles. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Chance, David H. 1986. People of the Falls. Colville, Washington: Kettle Falls Historical Center.

Childerhouse, R.J. and Marj Trim. 1979. Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin, and Alfred T. Richardson. 1905. Life, Letters and Travels of Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, S.J. 1801-1873. F.P. Harper: New York.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin, 1902. The American Fur Trade of the Far West. New York: F.P. Harper.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin, 1935. The American Fur Trade of the Far West. 2 vols. New York.

Chevigny, Hector. 1942. Lord of Alaska: Baranov and the Russian Adventure. New York: Viking.

------. 1965. Russian America:  The Great Alaskan Venture 1741-1867. New York: Viking Press, 1965.

Clark, Ella. 1953. Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cohen, Fay. 1986. Treaties on Trial:  The Continuing Controversy Over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Cone, Joseph and Sandra Ridlington. 1996. The Northwest Salmon Crisis, A Documentary History.Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.

Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. 1984. The People of Warm Springs. Warm Springs, Oregon.

Converse, George L. 1989. A military history of the Columbia Valley, 1848-1865. Walla Walla, Wash.: Pioneer Press Books.

Cook, James. 1809. Voyages of Captain James Cook. London: Richard Phillips.

Cook, Warren L. 1973. Flood Tide of Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Crandall, Julie V. 1946. The Story of Pacific Salmon. Portland: Binfords & Mort.

Coues, Elliott, ed. 1893. The History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Volume 1. 1893.

Cox, Ross. 1831. Adventures on the Columbia River, Including the Narrative of a Residence of Six Years on the Western Side of the Rocky Mountains, among Various Tribes of Indians Hitherto Unknown; Together with a Journey across the American Continent. Two vols. London.

Crutchfield, James A. and G. Pontecorvo. 1969. The Pacific Salmon Fisheries:  A Study of Irrational Conservation. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press.

Davidson, Gordon Charles. 1918. The North West Company. Berkeley: University of California Publications in History, Vol. III.

Davis, K.G. 1961. Ogden’s Snake Country Journal, 1826-27. Reprint. London.

Davis, H.L. 1935. Honey in the Horn. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Davies, John. 1980. Douglas of the Forests:  The North American Journals of David Douglas. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Deloria, Vine Jr., and David E. Wilkins. 1999. Tribes, Treaties & Constitutional Tribulation. Austin: University of Texas Press.

De Smet, Pierre-Jean. 1841. Indian Missions in the United States of America under the care of the Missouri Province of the Society of Jesus. Reprint, Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, 1985.

------. Oregon Missions and Travels Over the Rocky Mountains in 1845-46. 1847. New York: Dunigan. Reprint, Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, 1978.

Devoto, Bernard. 2000. The Year of Decision 1846. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1942. Reprint, New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.

------. 1952. The Course of Empire. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Dietrich, William. 1995. Northwest Passage: The Great Columbia River. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Dill, Clarence. 1970. Where Water Falls. Spokane: C.W. Hill Printers.

Dodds, Gordon B. 1986. The American Northwest:  A History of Oregon and Washington. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Forum Press.

Donaldson, I.J., and F.K. Cramer. 1971. Fishwheels of the Columbia. Portland, Oregon: Binfords and Mort.

Dove, Mourning. 1933. Coyote Stories. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Duncan, Angus, 1998. History, Science, the Law, and Watershed Recovery in the Grande Ronde: A Case Study. Oregon Sea Grant, Corvallis, Oregon.

Ficken, Robert E. 1995. Rufus Woods, the Columbia River and the Building of Modern Washington. Pullman: Washington State University Press.

Franchere, Gabriel  1854. Adventure at Astoria, 1810-1814. Reprint. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

Freeman, Lewis Ransome. 1921. Down the Columbia. New York: Dodd, Mead.

Fuller, George W. 1952. A History of the Pacific Northwest, With Special Emphasis on the Inland Empire. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Gibson, J. R. 1985. Farming the Frontier:  The agricultural opening of the Oregon country 1786-1846. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Gough, Barry. 1997. First Across the Continent: Sir Alexander Mackenzie. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

------. 1980. Distant Dominion: Britain and the Northwest Coast of North America, 1579-1809. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Groot, V., and L. Margolis. 1971. Pacific Salmon Life Histories. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Guthrie, Woody. Roll On Columbia:  The Columbia River Collection. Bill Murlin, ed. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Sing Out Publications, 1991.

Hearne, Samuel. Journey from Prince of Wales Fort on Hudson’s Bay to the Northern Ocean. Edited by J.B. Terrell. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1911.

Hedges, James B. 1930. Henry Villard and the Railways of the Northwest. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930.

Hines, Donald. 1992. Ghost Voices:  Yakama Indian Myths, Legends, Humor and Hunting Stories. Issaquah, Washington: Great Eagle.

Hines, Rev. Gustavus. 1859. Life on the Plains of the Pacific. Oregon: It’s History, Condition and Prospects; Containing a Description of the Geography, Climate, and Productions, with Personal Adventures Among the Indians During a Residence of the Author on the Plains Bordering the Pacific While Connected with the Oregon Mission: Embracing Extended Notes of a Voyage Around the World. New York: C.M. Saxton.

------. 1881. Wild Life in Oregon: Being a Recital of Actual Scenes of Daring and Peril Among the Gigantic Forests and Terrific Rapids of the Columbia River (The Mississippi of the Pacific Slope). And Giving Live-Like Pictures of Terrific Encounters with Savages as Fierce And Relentless As its Mighty Tides. Including a Full, Fair and Reliable History of the State of Oregon, Its Crops, Minerals, Timber Lands, Soils, Fisheries; Its Present Greatness, and Future Vast Capabilities, And Paramount Position. New York: Hurst & Company.

Holbrook, Stewart H. 1956. The Columbia. New York: Rinehart & Company.

Howard, Helen Addison, and Dan L. McGrath. 1952. War Chief Joseph. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton, Printers, Ltd.

Howay, Frederic W., ed. 1990. Voyages of the Columbia to the Northwest Coast, 1787-1790 & 1790-1793. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society Press, in cooperation with The Massachusetts Historical Society.

Hume, R. D. 1893. Salmon of the Pacific Coast. San Francisco: Schmidt Label and Lithographic Co.

Hunn, Eugene, S. 1990. Nch’i-Wana, The Big River:  Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Hyman, Barry, and R. Charles Peterson. 1998. Electric Power Systems Planning, A Pacific Northwest Perspective. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Irving, Washington. The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, U.S.A., in the Rocky Mountains. Reprint. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

______. 1890. Astoria. New York: Putnam, 1890; Portland: Binfords and Mort, 1950.

Jackson, Donald, ed. 1962. Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with Related Documents, 1783-1854. 2 vols. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Johnson, Robert C. 1935. John McLoughlin, Father of Oregon. Reprint. Portland: Binfords & Mort, 1958.

Johansen, Dorothy O., and Charles M. Gates. 1957. Empire of the Columbia. New York: 1957.

Josephy, Alvin. 1965. The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kane, Paul. Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America from Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through the Hudson’s Bau Company’s Territory and Back Again, by Paul Kane. Reprint. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1925.

Keyser, James. 1992. Indian Rock Art of the Columbia Plateau. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Kittridge, William. 1987. Owning it all. St. Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf Press.

Lancaster, Samuel C. 1915. The Columbia:  America’s Great Highway Through the Cascade Mountains. New York: J.K. Gill.

Lavender, David. 1958. Land of Giants: The Drive to the Pacific Northwest 1750-1950. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company.

------. 1963. Westward Vision, the Story of the Oregon Trail. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Layman, William D. 2002. Native River:  The Columbia Remembered. Pullman: Washington State University Press.

Lee, Kai N., and Donna Lee Klemka, with Marion Marts. 1980. Electric Power and the Future of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

------. 1993. Compass and Gyroscope:  Integrating Science and Politics for the Environment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Ledyard, John. 1783. A Journal of Captain Cook’s Last Voyage. Reprint. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963.

Lichatowich, Jim. Salmon Without Rivers: A History of the Pacific Salmon Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999.

Lockley, Fred. 1928. History of the Columbia River from The Dalles to the Sea. 2 vols. Chicago: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company.

Lorraine, Madison Johnson. 1924. The Columbia Unveiled, Being the story of a trip, alone in a rowboat from the source to the mouth of the Columbia River, Together with a full description of the country traversed, and the rapids battled. Los Angeles: The Times-Mirror Press.

Lowitt, Richard. 1984. The New Deal and the West. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Lyman, William Denison. 1918. The Columbia River, Its History, Its Myths, Its Commerce. New York: Putnam.

Lyons, C. 1969. Salmon:  Our Heritage. Vancouver, B.C. Mitchell Press.

MacDonald, Ranald. Ranald MacDonald : the narrative of his early life on the Columbia under the Hudson’s Bay Company’s regime, of his experiences in the Pacific whale fishery, and of his great adventure to Japan: With a sketch of his later life on the Western Frontier, 1824-1894. Eds. William S. Lewis and Naojiro Murakami. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1990.

Mackenzie, Alexander. 1801. Voyages from Montreal on the River St. Lawrence, Through the Continent of North America, to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans;  In the Years 1789 and 1793. London.

McArthur, Lewis A. 1982. Oregon Geographic Names. 5th Edition. Portland: Western Imprints, The Press of the Oregon Historical Society.

McKechnie, Robert E. 1972. Strong Medicine. Vancouver, B.C.: J.J. Douglas.

McKee, B. 1972. Cascadia:  The Geologic Evolution of the Pacific Northwest. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

McKeown, Martha Ferguson. 1948. The Trail Led North: Mont Hawthorne’s Story. New York: The MacMillan Company.

McKervill, H.W. 1967. The Salmon People:  The Story of Canada’s West Coast Salmon Industry. Sidney, B.C.: Gray’s Publishing.

McKinley, Charles. 1952. Uncle Sam in the Pacific Northwest:  Federal Management of Natural Resources in the Columbia River Valley. Berkeley: University of California Press.

McKinney, Sam. 1987. Reach of Tide, Ring of History. Portland: Oregon Historical Society.

McNeil, William, ed. 1988. Salmon Production, Management and Allocation:  Biological, Economic and Policy Issues. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.

------, and Daniel C. Himsworth, eds. 1980. Salmonid Ecosystems of the North Pacific. Corvallis:  Oregon State University Press.

Martin, Irene. 1994. Legacy and Testament: The Story of Columbia River Gillnetters. Pullman: Washington State University Press.

Meinig, D.W. 1968. The Great Columbia Plain: A Historical Geography, 1805-1910. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

Menzies, Archibald. Menzies’ Journal of Vancouver’s Voyage April to October, 1792. Ed. C.F. Newcombe. Victoria, B.C.: W.H. Cullin, 1923.

Merk, Frederick. 1963. Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History:  A Reinterpretation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

------, ed. 1968. Fur Trade and Empire:  George Simpson’s Journal, Entitled “Remarks connected with the Fur Trade in the Course of a Voyage from York Factory to Fort George and Back to York Factory, 1824-1825, with Related Documents. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press.

Mighetto, Lisa, and Wesley J. Ebel. 1994. Saving The Salmon: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Efforts to Protect Anadromous Fish on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Seattle: Historical Research Associates, Inc.

Miller, Gary K. 2001. Energy Northwest, A History of the Washington Public Power Supply System. Richland, Washington: Energy Northwest.

Miller, Christopher. 1985. Prophetic Worlds: Indians and Whites on the Columbia Plateau. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Mills, Randall W. 1947. Sternwheelers Up Columbia: A Century of Steamboating in the Oregon Country. Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books.

Molyneux, Geoffrey. 1992. British Columbia: An Illustrated History. Vancouver, B.C.: Polestar Press, Ltd.

Montgomery, Richard Gill. 1934. White-Headed Eagle. New York: Macmillan Co., 1934.

Morgan, Murray. 1949. The Columbia: Powerhouse of the West. Seattle: Superior Publishing Company.

------. 1954. The Dam. New York: Viking Press.

Mozino, Jose Mariano. 1793. Noticias de Nutka. Trans. 1970. Iris H. Wilson Engstrand. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

National Research Council. 1995. Upstream:  Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Nelson, Sonja, with the Portland Chapter, American Rhododendron Society. 2001. The Pacific Coast Rhododendron Story: The Hybridizers, Collectors and Gardens. Portland: Binford & Mort Publishing.

Netboy, Anthony. 1958. Salmon of the Pacific Northwest, Fish vs. Dams. Portland: Binfords and Mort.

------. 1974. The Salmon: Their Fight for Survival. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

------. 1980. Salmon:  The World’s Most Harassed Fish. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Winchester Press.

------. 1980. The Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Their Fight for Survival. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Newell, Dianne. 1989. The Development of the Pacific Salmon-Canning Industry:  A Grown Man’s Game. Montreal: McGill University Press.

Newman, Peter C. 1985. Company of Adventurers. New York: Viking.

------. 1987. Caesars of the Wilderness. New York: Viking.

Neuberger, Richard. 1938. Our Promised Land. New York: MacMillan.

Nisbet, Jack. 1994. Sources of the River: Tracking David Thompson Across Western North America. Seattle: Sasquatch Books.

------. 2003. Visible bones : Journeys across time in the Columbia River country. Seattle: Sasquatch Books.

Nokes, J. Richard. 1991. Columbia’s River: The Voyages of Robert Gray, 1787-1793.Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society.

Nuffield, Edward. 1990. The Pacific Northwest:  Its Discovery and Early Exploration by Sea, Land and River. Surrey, B.C.: Hancock House.

Nute, Grace Lee. 1943. Caesars of the Wilderness. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co. O’Donnell, Terrence. 1991. An Arrow in the Earth:  General Joel Palmer and the Indians of Oregon. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press.

Ormsby, Margaret. 1958. British Columbia:  A History. New York: Macmillan.

Palmer, Joel. 1847. Journal of his Travels over the Rocky Mountains. Cincinnati: J.A. and U.P James. Reprint. Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, 1983.

Palmer, Tim. 1991. The Snake River, Window to the West. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

------. 1997. The Columbia:  Sustaining a Modern Resource. Seattle: The Mountaineers.

Parish, Phillip H. 1931. Before the Covered Wagon. Portland: Binfords & Mort.

Parrish, Philip H. 1931. Before the Covered Wagon. New York: Metropolitan Press; Portland:  Binfords and Mort, 1931.

Pearcy, W.G. 1992. Ocean Ecology and North Pacific Salmonids. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Peterson, F. Ross. 1976. Idaho, a Bicentennial History. New York: Norton.

Peterson, Keith. River of Life, Channel of Death: Fish and Dams on the Lower Snake. Lewiston, Idaho: Confluence Press, 1995.

Pethick, Derek. 1979. First Approaches to the Northwest Coast. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

Phillips, James W. 1990. Washington State Place Names. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

Pitzer, Paul. 1995. Grand Coulee: Harnessing a Dream. Pullman,  Washington: Washington State University Press.

Powell, Fred Wilbur. 1932. Hall J. Kelley on Oregon. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Purchas, Samuel. 1625. Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrimes: contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and others. Reprint. Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons, 1905-07.

Ramsey, Jarold, ed. 1977. Coyote Was Going There:  Indian Literature of the Oregon Country. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Reisner, Marc. 1986. Cadillac Desert, The American West and its Disappearing Water. New York: Viking.

Relander, Click. 1953. Drummers and Dreamers. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers.

Resner, Herbert A. 1937. Power in the State of Washington. Seattle: Works Progress Administration.

Rezanov, Nickolai Petrovich. The Rezanov Voyage to Nueva California in 1806:  The Report of Count Nickolai Petrovich Rezanov of His Voyage to That Provincia of Nueva España from New Archangel. Reprint. San Francisco, 1926.

Rice, David G. 1983. Archaeological Investigations at WPPSS Nuclear Plants on the Hanford Reservation, Washington. Richland: Washington Public Power Supply System.

Rich, E.E., ed. Simpson’s 1828 Journey to the Columbia. Reprint. Toronto: Champlain Society for the Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1947.

Richards, Kent D. 1979. Isaac I. Stevens:  Young Man in a Hurry. Provo: Brigham Young University.

Robbins, William G., Robert J. Frank and Richard E. Ross, eds. 1983. Regionalism and the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.

Robbins, W.G. 1997. Landscapes of Promise:  The Oregon Story, 1800-1940. Seattle:  University of Washington Press, 1997.

Rollins, Philip Aston (ed.). 1935. Wilson Price Hunt’s Diary on His Overland Journey Westward to Astoria in 1811-12;  The Discovery of the Oregon Trail:  Robert Stuart’s  Narratives of His Overland Trip Eastward From Astoria in 1812-13. Reprint. New York.

Ronda, James P. 1984. Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

------. 1990. Astoria and Empire. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Ross, Alexander. 1849. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River, Being a Narrative of the Expedition Fitted Out by John Jacob Astor, to Establish the “Pacific Fur Company;” with an Account of Some Indian Tribes on the Coast of the Pacific. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown. 1970. The Spokane Indians: Children of the Sun. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

------. 1972. The Cayuse Indians:  Imperial Tribesmen of Old Oregon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.

------. 1974. Ferryboats on the Columbia River, Including the Bridges and Dams. Seattle: Superior Publishing Company.

------. 1976. The Chinook Indians, Traders of the Lower Columbia River. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Sanger, S.L. 1989. Hanford and the Bomb. Seattle: Living History Press.

Satterfield, Archie. 1968. Moods of the Columbia. Seattle: Superior Publishing Co.

Scarce, Rik. 2000. Fishy Business: Salmon, Biology and the Social Construction of Nature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Schwantes, Carlos A. 1989. The Pacific Northwest:  An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

------. 1993. Railroad Signatures Across the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

------, ed. 1994. Encounters With a Distant Land: Exploration and the Great Northwest. Moscow: University of Idaho Press.

Seufert, Francis, with Thomas Vaughn. 1980. Wheels of Fortune. Portland: Oregon Historical Society.

Shaw, Susan A. and James F. Muir. 1987. Salmon: Economics and marketing. Portland: Timber Press.

Speck, Gordon. 1954. Northwest Explorations. Portland: Binfords & Mort, 1954.

------. 1963. Samuel Hearne and the Northwest Passage. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton.

------. 1979. Myths and New World Explorations. Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press.

Spry, I. M., ed. 1968. The papers of the Palliser Expedition: 1857-1860. Vol. 44. Toronto: Publications of the Champlain Society.

Smith, Courtland. 1979. Salmon Fishers of the Columbia. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.

Stevens, Isaac Ingalls. 1855. A True Copy of the Record of the Official Proceedings at the Council in the Walla Walla Valley, 1855. Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press.

Stouder, Deanna J., Peter A. Bisson and Robert J. Naiman, eds. 1997. Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems:  Status and Future Options. New York: Chapman & Hall.

Sundborg, George. 1954. Hail Columbia:  The Thirty-Year Struggle for Grand Coulee Dam. New York: Macmillan.

Swan, J. G. 1857. The Northwest Coast or, three years’ residence in Washington Territory. Reprint. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Taylor, Joseph E. III. 1999. Making Salmon:  An Environmental History of the Northwest Fisheries Crisis. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Thwaites, Ruben Gold, ed. 1904. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806. Reprint. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1959.

Tyrell, J. B., ed. 1916. David Thompson’s Narrative of  his Explorations in Western America, 1784-1812. Toronto: The Champlain Society.

------, ed. 1934. Hearne and Turner Journals. Toronto: Champlain Society.

Townsend, John Kirk. 1839. Narrative of a Journey across the Rockies to the Columbia. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978. Also in Early Western Travels, Volume II, Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Cleveland, Ohio, 1905.

Ulrich, Roberta. 1999. Empty Nets: Indians, Dams, and the Columbia River. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.

Vaughn, Thomas. 1971. Paul Kane, The Columbia Wanderer. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press.

Victor, Frances Fuller 1870. The River of the West. Life and Adventure in the Rocky Mountains and Oregon; Embracing Events in the Life of a Mountain Man and Pioneer: With the  Early History of the North-Western Slope, Including an Account of the Fur Traders, the Indian Tribes, the Overland Immigration, the Oregon Missions, and the Tragic Fate of Rev. Dr. Whitman and Family. Also, a Description of the Country, its Condition, Prospects, and Resources; its Climate, and Scenery; its Mountains, Rivers, Valleys, Deserts, and Plains; its Inland Waters, and Natural Wonders. With Numerous Engravings. Hartford, Conn.: Columbian Book Company. Newark, N. J.: Bliss & Co. Toledo, Ohio: W. E. Bliss & Co. San Francisco: R. J. Trumbull & Co.

------. 1872. All over Oregon and Washington. Observations on the country, its scenery, soil, climate, resources, and improvements, with an outline of its early history. Also hints to immigrants and travelers concerning routes, the cost of travel, the price of land, etc., by Mrs. Frances Fuller Victor. San Francisco: J.H. Carmany & Co.

------. 1891. Atlantis Arisen; or, Talks of a Tourist About Oregon and Washington. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Vining, Edward P. 1885. An Inglorious Columbus; or, Evidence That Hwui Shan and a Party of Buddhist Monks from Afghanistan Discovered America in the Fifth Century A.D. New York: D. Appleton Co.

Volkman, John M., 1996. A river in common: the Columbia River, the salmon ecosystem, and water quality [free PDF download]. Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, Denver, Colorado.

Wagner, H.R. 1929. Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America in the Sixteenth Century. San Francisco: California Historical Society.

Water Resources Research Institute. 1980. Conflicts Over the Columbia River. Corvallis: Oregon State University.

Weiss, Paul L., and William L. Newman. 1989. The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington:  The Geographic Story of the Spokane Flood. Cheney: Eastern Washington University Press.

Wendler, Henry. 1966. Regulation of Commercial Fishing Gear and Seasons on the Columbia River from 1859-1963. Olympia, Washington: Washington Department of Fisheries, 1966.

White, Richard. 1995. The Organic Machine:  The remaking of the Columbia River. New York: Hill and Wang.

------. 1991. It’s Your Misfortune and None of My Own: A History of the American West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Whitman, Narcissa. My Journal, 1836. Reprint. Lawrence L. Dodd, ed.. Fairfield, Washington:  Ye Galleon Press, 1982.

Williams, Glynn. 2003. Voyages of Delusion, The Quest for the Northwest Passage. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Willingham, William F. 1983. Army Engineers and the Development of Oregon: A History of the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Woodcock, George. 1990. British Columbia:  A History of the Province. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.

Worster, Donald. 1977. Nature’s economy: A History of ecological ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

------. 1985. Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, & the Growth of the American West. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. New York: Pantheon Books.

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Bankes, Nigel. 1996. The Columbia Basin and the Columbia River Treaty:  Canadian Perspectives in the 1990s. Portland, Oregon: Northwestern School of Law, Lewis and Clark College: Northwest Water Law & Policy Project, Research Publication PO95-4.

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Boyd, Robert T. 1975. Another Look at the ‘Fever and Ague’ of Western Oregon. Ethnohistory 22: 135-54.

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Cochran, John S. 1970. Economic Importance of Early Transcontinental Railroads: Pacific Northwest. Oregon Historical Quarterly 71: 26-98.

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Cody, Robin. 1984. If Salmon Were Truth. Portland: The Oregonian. Northwest: April 29, 1984.

Cook, S.F. 1955. The Epidemic of 1830-1833 in California and Oregon. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 43: 3.

Craig, J. 1935. The Effects of Power and Irrigation Projects on the Migratory Fish of the Columbia River. Northwest Science 401 (1): 19-22.

Cutter, Donald C. 1963. Spanish scientific exploration along the Pacific coast. The American West---an appraisal. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press.

DeLoach, D. B. 1939. The salmon canning industry. Corvallis: Oregon State University. Oregon State Monographs, Economic Studies 1.

Deutsch, Herman J. 1960. The Evolution of the International Boundary in the Inland Empire of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 51: 115-31.

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Donan, Peter. 1898. The Columbia River Empire. Portland: Passenger Dept. of the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Co.

______. The Columbia River Empire: Some hurried glimpses of a region where all glories of scene, all charms of climate and all riches of resource meet and shake hands. Portland, Oregon: Passenger Dept. of the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Co., 1899.

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Elliott, T.C. 1950. The Discovery of the Source of the Columbia River. Oregon Historical Quarterly26: 25-38.

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Michael, J.H. 1999. The Future of Washington salmon:  Extinction is not an option but may be the preferred alternative. Northwest Science 73 (3) 235-239.

Miller, R.R. and R.G. Miller. 1948. The Contribution of the Columbia River System to the Fish Fauna of Nevada: Five Species Unrecorded from the State. Copeia 3: 174-187.

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______. 2000. A Standardized Quantitative Analysis of Risks Faced by Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. Draft report, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Cumulative Risk Initiative, Seattle, July 17, 2000.

______. 2000. 2000 Biological Opinion:  Reinitiation of Consultation on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Including the Juvenile Fish Transportation Program, and 19 Bureau of Reclamation Projects in the Columbia Basin. Northwest Regional Office, Seattle, December 21, 2000.

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Unpublished Documents

Dick, Wesley Arden. 1973. Visions of Abundance – The Public Power Crusade in the Pacific Northwest in the Era of J.D. Ross and the New Deal. PhD Thesis, University of Washington.

Haswell, Robert. A voyage on Discoveries in the Ship Columbia Rediviva. Copy of Manuscript AA 20.5 C 72 Ha, Archives of British Columbia, Victoria.

Hayden, M.V. 1930. History of the Salmon Industry of Oregon.” MA Thesis, University of Oregon.

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Leibhardt, Barbara G. 1990. Law, Environment, and Social Change in the Columbia River Basin:  The Yakima Indian Nation As A Case Study, 1840-1933. PhD. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Ogden, Daniel M., Jr. 1997. Governance of the Columbia River. Unpublished manuscript. Vancouver, Washington. December 11, 1997, photocopy.

Pitzer, Paul. 1990 and 1992. Grand Coulee---The Struggle, Grand Coulee---The Dam, Visions, Plans and Realities: A History of the Columbia Basin Project. PhD Thesis, University of Oregon.

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Taylor, Joseph E. 1992. Steelhead’s Mother Was His Father, Salmon: Development and Declension of Aboriginal Conservation in the Oregon Country Salmon Fishery. M.A. Thesis, University of Oregon.

------. 1996. Making Salmon: Economy, Culture and Science in the Oregon Fisheries, Precontact to 1960. PhD Thesis, University of Washington.

Tomison, P. 1987. When Celilo Was Celilo:  An Analysis of Salmon Use During the Past 11,000 Years in the Columbia Plateau. MA Thesis, Oregon State University.